submit50 is a command-line tool with which you can submit work (e.g., problem sets) to a course (e.g., CS50). It’s based on
git, a “distributed version control system” that allows you to save different versions of files without having to give each version a unique filename (as you might be wont to do on your own Mac or PC!). Via
submit50 and, in turn,
git can you thus submit work multiple times (i.e., multiple versions thereof).
When you run
submit50, your files are “pushed” (i.e., uploaded) to CS50’s “organization” (also named “submit50”) on GitHub, a popular service via which developers (like you!) can share code. Your files are stored in a “repository” (a folder, essentially) to which only you and some of CS50’s staff have access (and anyone else to whom you grant access). Your work can thus be reviewed and scored in one central place, whether you wrote it in CS50 IDE or elsewhere!
Install Python 3.6 or later, if you haven’t already.
pip, if you haven’t already.
pip3 install submit50
pip3 install --upgrade submit50
usage: submit50 [-h] [--logout] [-v] [-V] slug positional arguments: slug prescribed identifier of work to submit optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit --logout logout of submit50 -v, --verbose show commands being executed -V, --version show program's version number and exit
To submit work with
cd to the work’s directory and execute
slug is the unique identifier for the work you’re submitting, as prescribed by the course (as in a problem’s specification). Although the
slug might resemble the path to a directory, it’s simply a unique identifier, independent of your own work’s location. If you’ve not recently run
submit50 (within the past week), you might be prompted to log in with your GitHub username and password. (Per the source code for
submit50, your username and password are sent only to GitHub, not to CS50’s own servers.) You will then be prompted to confirm whether you indeed want to submit one or more files from your current directory, unless you’re missing one or more required files, in which case
submit50 will instead exit without submitting anything.
submit50 pushes your work to GitHub via HTTPS, which requires your GitHub username and password, which is why
submit50 prompts you for both at least once per week. If you’d prefer not to provide
submit50 with your GitHub username and password at all, you can instead push your work to GitHub via SSH. Configure your workspace on CS50 IDE (or your own computer) as follows.
ssh -T -p443 email@example.com
ssh.github.comto the list of known hosts for
ssh, answering “yes” if prompted whether you’re sure you want to continue connecting. If all goes well, you should see the message
Hi <USERNAME>! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access. Connection to github.com closed.
<USERNAME> is your GitHub username).
Thereafter, you should be able to run
submit50 without ever being prompted for your GitHub username or password.
If comfortable with
git, you can submit work without
submit50. Simply push your work to the expected branch (i.e., the work’s prescribed slug which is found in the “How to Submit” section of each project.) of
jharvard is your own GitHub username. To get started, either clone that repository or add it to an existing repository as a remote.
On each such branch, take care to create a
.gitignore file based on
slug is as before, so that you don’t submit files that
submit50 would otherwise ignore.
Note again that the branch should not be
main, or the like, and instead be the work’s prescribed slug as listed in the project specification.
To see how
git underneath the hood, execute
submit50 -v slug
submit50 --verbose slug
slug is the unique identifier for the work you’re submitting.
Do I need to provide
submit50 with my GitHub username and password?
Nope, you can instead authenticate via SSH.
If I use
git locally, will
submit50 affect my local repository?
submit50 uses its own
/tmp). It will ignore any
.git directory that you might have locally.
submit50 remember my GitHub password?
submit50 remembers your username and password in RAM using
git-credential-cache. Your password is never stored on disk or transmitted elsewhere.